Sociology searches scientific explanations how societal organizations, culture and relationships between people form. Sociology delves into theories about society and humane world in order to analyze the phenomenon of today. Sociology is not recognized firstly of its research subjects but for its approach. It finds order and logic in the humane, everyday action. Understanding the logic of action requires combining theories of social phenomena with research approaches. Methods in sociological research are for example interviews, ethnography, analyzation of discourses, semiotics, rhetoric and statistical research

Area of research in sociology extends from economical and political structures to human interaction. The special fields of sociology include different research problems. Research subjects are social structure, gender, education, science, art and economy, for example. The sociologists in the University of Lapland research the change of nordic society, the relationship of human and nature, changing work, welfare, ethnicity and culture, such as Sami. 

Sociology often highlights social inequalities and interpretations of social phenomena that differ from prevailing views. Sociology seeks to increase understanding of the individual's place as a citizen in society. Sociology's theories and research findings are socially critical in nature. Sociologists seek to understand the meaning of different activities and lifestyles in an objective way. Many sociological research problems are of such a nature that they require communication between researchers and disciplines.

As a major, sociology provides a broad range of knowledge and skills for working in various professions and expert positions.There are many sociologists working in research, teaching, information, organisations and administration, among others.